Sunblock: The Next 50 Years of Solar Eclipses in Washington

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Geography & Geology

The Northwest is not exactly famous for its sunshine. Would we miss it if it was taken away?  Suddenly?  Sure, a miles-thick nimbostratus might darken our skies from time to time and volcanic ash has been known to turn some of our cities’ noontimes to night, but how often does several thousand miles of solid rock come between us and our favorite star?

Not often at all.*  The last total solar eclipse — an astronomical phenomenon caused by the moon passing between the earth and the sun thereby casting a shadow on us — visible from anywhere in the state of Washington happened more than 30 years ago.

I remember that morning, February 26, 1979, because we kids were permitted to linger at home an hour before going to school.  The sun came up somewhere behind the clouds, everything went dark for a few minutes, then daylight resumed.  Had I been with my brother in Maryhill I might have witnessed the moon’s disc slide completely across the sun, banishing daylight and calling back the stars for a few minutes.  But even in overcast Tacoma the peculiar mid-morning nightfall was fascinating.

Many years have passed since then. Will totality strike Washington again soon?  For today’s list we decided to spin the astrolabe 50 years into the future and list all the eclipses that might be visible from here. About twenty partial eclipses are due in that coming half century, starting with one precisely a year from today: Oct 23, 2014.  The best eclipse of the lot, however, will come 34 months later on August 21, 2017.  At about 10:20 that Monday morning, the thin shadow of totality will slide into northern Oregon from the Pacific and roll east and south toward South Carolina.  If you watch from anywhere in Washington, you’ll see a partial eclipse.  With 99% of the sun covered, Vancouver will have an almost total eclipse, but you’d have to venture still farther south — near Salem, Oregon — to be cast into the pits of darkness.**  The two-minutes of totality coupled with the much longer partial eclipse phase fore and aft might be worth the short trip to the Beaver State.  We’ll have a close call with an annular eclipse streaking through Oregon in 2023, too.

FAR FUTURE:  We looked for the holy grail — a total eclipse in the state — but couldn’t find one any time soon.   Not in this century, at least.  The closest after 2017, won’t come until September 14, 2099.  That’s right: 2099!  That’s when a totality shadow will pass through British Columbia north of us.  The main shadow of an annular eclipse, however, will next cross through Washington on July 3, 2094.  It will cut a wide diagonal path from Bellingham to Clarkston and all parts south and west.  The remainder of the state — the north central, northeast, and Spokane areas — will be in the partial shadow.  Another annular eclipse will graze the Longview and Vancouver area Nov 15, 2077.  Each of these three events, of course, involve a very long wait.  It might be best to enjoy the partial eclipse of 2014, plan for the near-total eclipse in 2017, and for goodness sake hope for good weather.


2014 Oct 23 Partial Partial throughout Washington.
2017 Aug 21 Total Partial throughout Washington, but very near total. The path of totality runs horizontally across northern Oregon. Vancouver and Portland will be 99% total; Salem 100%.
2023 Oct 14 Annular Partial throughout Washington. The path of annularity runs through Oregon.
2024 Apr 8 Total Partial throughout Washington.
2026 Aug 12 Total Partial in extreme northeast Washington only, if at all.
2029 Jan 14 Partial Partial throughout Washington.
2033 Mar 30 Total Partial throughout Washington.
2039 Jun 21 Annular Partial throughout Washington.
2040 Nov 4 Partial Partial throughout Washington.
2043 Apr 9 Total Partial throughout Washington.
2044 Aug 23 Total Partial throughout Washington.
2045 Aug 12 Total Partial throughout Washington.
2046 Feb 5 Annular Partial throughout Washington, with the path of annularity ending near the Oregon-Idaho border.
2048 Jun 11 Annular Partial throughout Washington.
2052 Mar 30 Total Partial throughout Washington.
2054 Sep 2 Partial Partial throughout Washington.
2055 Jun 27 Partial Partial throughout Washington.
2056 Jan 16 Annular Partial throughout Washington.
2057 Jul 1 Annular Partial throughout Washington.

*Solar eclipses are not common.   There are typically two or three somewhere in the world during any given year and not all of them are total eclipses.  They might be annular.  That’s when the moon, farther away than normal, isn’t large enough to cover the sun, but manages to block most of its center and  leave a bright ring-of-fire around it.  There are also partial eclipses in which the moon passes above or below and merely grazes part of the sun’s disc.  Even the few that are total reach totality along only a very narrow ribbon of the earth’s surface.  And that ribbon is more likely to cast a shadow across open ocean than any particular landmass.  So it’s a special event when the moon passes in front of the sun where you happen to be.  Most people yearning to see an eclipse must travel.  And hope for good weather when they get there.

**I’m sure being cast into the pits of darkness is not what most visitors expect when they visit Salem.  Or even Eugene.

PHOTO: The corona of the sun during a total eclipse, August, 1905.

SOURCES:  This list was long in the making.  We  first learned of the 2017 eclipse in 1979 — long before WA-List was a household name.  In more recent years, we sifted through various reports and resources that calculated eclipses.  Dates worldwide were easy to come by, but detailed shadows maps were not.  Some maps were excellent in an astronomical sense, but were understandably not designed to be precise down to a state boundary level.  As a consequence, it took some time to determine how close some eclipse shadows approached Washington.  We believe our final list is accurate.  The Astronomy Department at the University of Washington kindly confirmed our dearth of total eclipses through the next century and shared the main shadow tracks of several of our closest encounters.  The best sources for eclipse data that we found online included the US Naval Observatory, the UK Hydrographic Office, the International Astronomical Union, MrEclipse.com, and eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov.


Lunch in a bag

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Business & Industry

On a road trip this summer we couldn’t help notice the omnipresence of Jack in the Box.  The square sign seemed to appear at every other interstate exit ramp and it was often the first restaurant on the adjacent street.  We did a check and discovered there were 148 JITBs in the state of Washington.

It turns out that’s only good enough for fourth place in today’s WA-List.  You’ll find even more Starbucks, Subways, and McDonald’s. There are enough Starbucks, in fact, to evenly distribute one store into every 10×10 mile square in Washington.  Our curiosity was peeked.  We set out to compile a ranking of fast food sites in Washington.

NOTES: WA-List does not endorse any of these companies.  We merely wanted to see how common they were.  No fries or shakes were consumed in the endeavor.  Be sure to see our methodology, omissions, and sources below.


Chain Type # of stores in WA   # of stores in USA  
Starbucks Snack  693  (a) 11,128  
Subway Sandwich 465 (b) 25,549  
McDonald’s Burger  266  (a) 14,157  
Jack in the Box Burger  148  (c) 2,250  
Papa Murphy’s Pizza & pasta  128  (d) 1,329  
Domino’s Pizza Pizza & pasta  112  (a)  4,928  
Burger King Burger 108 (b) 7,183  
Pizza Hut Pizza & pasta  106  (d)  6,209  
Baskin-Robbins Snack  103  (d)  2,463  
Dairy Queen Burger  102  (a)  4,462  
Taco Bell Mexican 93 (b) 5,262  
KFC Chicken  80  (d)  4,556  
Wendy’s Burger  76  (a)  5,817  
Quiznos Sandwich  67  (a)  2,353  
Arby’s Sandwich  58  (a)  3,354  
Panda Express Asian  58  (a)  1,533  
Papa John’s Pizza & pasta  52  (e)  3,131  
Jimmy John’s Sandwich  47  (e)  1,560  
Little Caesars Pizza & pasta 45 (b) 3,725  
Jamba Juice Snack  38  (a)  774  
Panera Bread Sandwich  24  (a)  1,652  
Carl’s Jr Burger  22  (a)  1,124  
Qdoba Mexican Grill Mexican  21  (a)  627  
Five Guys Burgers & Fries Burger  20  (e)  1,105  
Chipotle Mexican Grill Mexican  17  (a)  1,410  
Popeye’s Louisiana Kitchen Chicken  12  (e)  1,679  
Sbarro Pizza & pasta  12  (e)  611  
Sonic Drive-In Burger  10  (a)  3,556  
Einstein Bros. Bagels Sandwich  9  (e)  534  
Long John Silver’s Seafood  7  (a)  911  
Krispy Kreme Snack  6  (e)  239  
Church’s Chicken Chicken  3  (e)  1,202  
Wingstop Chicken  3  (e)  533  
Del Taco Mexican  2  (e) 551  

Top national chains with no Washington locations:  Bojangles’, Boston Market, Captain D’s, Checkers/Rally’s, Chick-fil-A, CiCi’s Pizza, Culver’s, Dunkin’ Donuts, El Pollo Loco, Hardee’s, In-N-Out Burger, Jason’s Deli, Krystal, Moe’s Southwest Grill, Steak ‘n Shake, Tim Hortons, Whataburger, White Castle, and Zaxby’s.  We believe at least three of these chains have had Washington locations in the past.

Top national chains with a disproportionate number of Washington locations:  Of the fast food restaurants that made the final list, we ran calculations to see which ones proliferate in Washington at a higher rate than the national average.  The “Disproportionate Top 5″ were Papa Murphy’s (with our state hosting 9.6% of the US total), Jack in the Box (6.6%), Starbucks (6.2%), Jamba Juice (4.9%), and Baskin-Robbins (4.2%).

PHOTO of street in North Bend featuring Burger King, Taco Time, Arby’s, Starbucks, and McDonald’s © Steve Campion.

METHODOLOGY: We started with the QSR 50, an industry ranking of the largest fast food (“quick service”) restaurants in America.  QSR Magazine’s lists for 2012 and 2013 gave us 52 chains to investigate.  We sought location data directly from the companies themselves.  That was possible in many cases, but not all.  Several chains ignored our repeated requests, leading us to derive data from other sources.  The numbers are in constant flux, too, since stores open and close throughout the year.  We believe our final list is reasonably accurate; a snapshot of restaurant locations during late summer, 2013.

OMISSIONS: Sadly, this methodology left out a few chains that Northwesterners are quite familiar with, including Abbie’s Pizza, Blimpie, Burgerville USA, Dick’s, Ivar’s, Skipper’s, and Taco Time (which even appears in our photo above, second from left).  After much deliberation we chose to exclude them because we couldn’t be sure we’d find all of the small local chains if we strayed from the national list. We could easily get tangled by definitions, too. Frisko Freeze, for example, has been a fast food landmark in Tacoma for 60+ years and had multiple locations for a while. But it’s back to one location again. Is it a chain?  Are Starbucks and Papa Murphy’s fast food? We had to start our list somewhere and the QSR 50 seemed the most reasonable. If we find reliable sources of information, we’ll gladly post all (or most) of the local chains in an exclusive  future list.

SOURCES: The number of national locations come from QSR 50’s 2012 data, except for those of Sbarro and Einstein Bros. Bagels which come from 2011 data.  The number of Washington locations are from late summer, 2013.  It was collected from several sources (labeled by letter in the list’s fourth column and described below).  We tried to get direct confirmation from each of the fast food companies themselves and thank those companies marked with (a) or (c).  They responded to our query in a straight-forward manner — either by email or return phone call.  Companies labeled (e) had straightforward website location finders. The others — marked with (b) or (d) — were not cooperative with our quest, and remained silent despite two, three, and even four contact attempts by phone or email.  We did our best to derive  location estimates from other sources .

  • (a) email correspondence with the company
  • (b) database search within DemographicsNow via Pierce County Library
  • (c) telephone confirmation with the company
  • (d) estimate based on limited information on the company’s website
  • (e) data collected from the company’s website

Seattle Pioneers in Prime Time

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Arts, Culture & Media

Asa Mercer took on a crazy idea. In 1864, the first president of what became the University of Washington sailed back East and tried to gather a ship full of women and return them to Seattle where a disproportion of single men eagerly awaited potential brides. He convinced only 11 women to make the trip.

No matter. Producers in TV Land liked the story and built a television series around it. On Sept 25, 1968, with an opening featuring a stereopticon and an instrumental version of “Seattle (The Bluest Skies You’ve Ever Seen),” ABC introduced America to a fanciful version of Seattle’s pioneer logging days. “Here Come the Brides” ran for 2 seasons.

The show centered on the fictional Bolt Brothers (the three men in the image, right).  They owned a logging operation and a forested mountain within jogging distance of Seattle. They were in constant conflict with Aaron Stempel, wealth personified, who owned the mill and a fair share of the town. When the Bolts weren’t trying to keep Bridal Veil Mountain from the entrepreneurial hands of Stempel (or those of any traveling huckster), they were struggling to keep the 100 brides happy in their new frontier home. None of this was based on fact. Hollywood seldom requires that.

For today’s WA-List, we present the characters and actors who appeared in at least half of the show’s 52 episodes, and include a few miscellaneous facts about them — including more than a few surprising connections with Star Trek.


The Bolt Brothers

  • Jason Bolt (Robert Brown). We think the oldest brother of the Bolt clan is a separated-at-birth-candidate with Grant Goodeve, the Eight is Enough actor and current host of Northwest Backroads. Jason was the biggest man in TV’s version of Seattle and kept things productive and orderly — even if he did get hot-tempered from time to time. Actor Brown appeared as Lazarus in Star Trek (“The Alternative Factor” episode), and appeared as different characters in three different episodes of Perry Mason.
  • Joshua Bolt (David Soul). A few years after HCTB, Soul got a part on a little hit show called Starsky and Hutch. Soul was Hutch. He also dabbled in a music career and landed a record on the pop charts. Star Trek experience? Yes. He played Makora in “The Apple” episode.
  • Jeremy Bolt (Bobby Sherman). The actor who played the youngest Bolt brother became a teen idol in the pop music world for a few minutes (or a little longer). He even recorded a version of the series’ theme song. It never appeared on the series, but he did sing at least once on the show. Jeremy’s character was in love with Candy, the leader of the brides. Of the four actors appearing in all 52 epsiodes of HCTB, Bobby Sherman is the only one who never appeared in Star Trek.

The Money

  • Aaron Stempel (Mark Lenard). The owner of Seattle’s lumber mill put up most of the money to bring the brides to Seattle but his bet with the Bolt brothers would win him ownership of their mountain if even one bride left town before a year was over. You might also recognize the actor who played Stempel from Star Trek. Mark Lenard portrayed Sarek, Spock’s father, in two different Star Trek series and four Star Trek movies.
    • The Sempel-Sarek connection was so great that a 1985 sci-fi novel by Barbara Hambly led Spock to 19th century Here Come the Brides Seattle to thwart a Klingon plot to destroy the Federation. Ailing in Seattle, Spock was cared for by Sempel, who Capt. Kirk later discovered was Spock’s maternal ancestor. How’s that for a tangled weave of actors’ resumes, television characters, and historical and science fiction storylines? It’s a shame Murray Morgan never included a chapter on Spock in his classic Skid Road history of Seattle!

The Women

  • Candy Pruitt (Bridget Hanley). Candy was Jeremy’s sweetheart and the spokesperson for the brides on the show. Hanley was the only cast member to have been born in Seattle, albeit about 100 years after the her character would have been born in New England. The actor never appeared on Star Trek, but we did confuse her name with the author of the aforementioned Star Trek-Here Come the Brides novel as we prepared this list.
  • Lottie Hatfield (Joan Blondell). Lottie’s bar was the main interior set on the show. In various episodes, Lottie’s was the social center of town, as well as the courthouse, gaming room, and go-to place for business negotiations and brawls. Joan Blondell was a veteran actress starting in 1930, but may be best known to younger audiences as the principal of Rydell High in the movie Grease. Believe it or not, she even made a guest appearance on co-star David Soul’s Starsky and Hutch in 1976. Her character name? Mrs. Pruitt. Hmm. That was Candy’s last name, not Lottie’s!

Other Cast

  • Biddie Cloom (Susan Tolsky). Biddie was Candy’s inexhaustibly talkative best friend.
  • Capt. Roland Clancey (Henry Beckman). Clancey was a sea captain who appeared to be the only sailor willing to land in Seattle. The episodes featured very few other captains or ships. Clancey’s fondness for alcohol led him to Lottie’s and his fondness for Lottie increasingly made him a regular character in the show’s second season. Actor Beckman lived in Deming, Washington for a few years after HCTB concluded.
  • Ben (Hoke Howell). Owner of Seattle’s general store.


  • Asa Mercer brought 11 “Mercer Girls” to Seattle in 1864, far fewer than he had planned. Three years later he made a second trip back east hoping to enlist 700 single women, but convinced only about 40 more.
  • The TV series’ theme was an instrumental version of Hugh Montenegro’s “Seattle” during its first season. A choral arrangement of the song was added for season 2.  I’ve heard several people argue that Perry Como sang the theme for the show.  Nope.  He recorded a popular version but it wasn’t for the show.
  • Blondell died in 1979, Lenard in 1996, Howell in 1997, and Beckman in 2008. The other five actors (who played the Bolt brothers, Candy, and Biddie) are still living.
  • We frequently mentioned Star Trek in this list, but that was not the only common parallel TV series. Three of the actors here appeared in Love, American Style and three were passengers aboard the Love Boat. Unfortunately, Clancey was not among the latter. He could have skippered the ship.

SOURCES: Actor names and resume information was derived from the Internet Movie Database. We also learned much about the characters and fictional history of Seattle by watching all 52 episodes of the Here Come the Brides series. The true story of the Mercer Girls has been told many times, including a chapter in Totem Tales of Old Seattle by Gordon Newell and Don Sherwood. Murray Morgan (Skid Road) and William C. Speidel (Sons of the Profits) briefly wrote about the matter in their books. We discovered the Ishmael book accidentally while doing this research. It came up in a search of library catalogs.


Carriage Returns: Northwest Carriage Museum in Raymond

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Transportation

“Chicks and ducks and geese better scurry
When I take you out in the surrey,
When I take you out in the surrey with the fringe on top!”
–From Oklahoma! by Rodgers and Hammerstein, 1943

Who wouldn’t want to go for a ride in a surrey? Or zip across town in a Hansom cab? Or ride in style in a C-Spring?

Carriages are nostalgic in this age of automobiles; the stuff of Sherlock Holmes movies and old black & white photos. We’re more than a century removed from the heyday of horse-drawn carriages and we seldom see them — even at pioneer fairs or parades. Imagine our surprise, then, when we stumbled upon an entire museum of carriages in the Pacific County city of Raymond. If that wasn’t astonishing enough, the carriages on display were not worn-out buckboards showing their age. One hundred fifty years old? These look like they are still in a dealer’s showroom. Did they have carriage showrooms in the 19th century? Maybe you should ask when you visit.

This unlikely but remarkable museum grew from the collection of Raymond residents Gary and Cec Dennis. They had been collecting and restoring antique carriages on their property for years. Credit them (and NWCM curator Jerry Bowman) for the selection and condition of many of the vehicles. Some retain their original upholstery!

In 1999, the Dennises offered to donate the carriages to the city if it would build a museum to house them. The city agreed and the Northwest Carriage Museum opened in Raymond in 2002. The restored carriages are things of beauty and the museum’s displays and lighting are top-notch.

As we strolled through the halls, taking our own sweet 19th century time, we began compiling a list: An illustrated sampling of carriages, coaches, and wagons. That list appears below and features 14 carriages including a hearse and a sleigh. Three have Hollywood resumes. All are fine specimens of 19th century American and British transportation, superbly maintained, and just a bit dreamy. In the days of the horse-drawn carriage, many of these were status symbols — signs of wealth and elegance. They not only carried people from place to place but displayed their passengers to onlookers. You can’t see fine details in these small web photos, but you can get very close at the museum where anything from the headlights and seats to the paint detailing and wheels might fascinate you. We had to omit some other interesting artifacts: an 1850s London road coach, a governess cart, a social vis-à-vis, and a produce wagon among others. And we haven’t even mentioned the carriage maker’s tool wall and replica school room for children. You’ll have to see those when you visit.

The Northwest Carriage Museum (NWCM).

  • Location: 314 Alder St, Raymond, WA 98577.
  • Open: May-Sept: Daily. Oct-Apr: Wed-Sun. Check the website for specific open hours.
  • Phone: 360-942-4150
  • Website: NWCarriageMuseum.org


C-Spring Dress Landau. This carriage is the museum’s star attraction. It greets visitors as they come in. (A side view is shown above.) It’s a convertible with a top that collapses in two halves behind either of the facing passengers. They could have the top down in good weather or simply when the riders desired to be seen. Status was everything. The driver, perched high on a completely different plane (and social level) was more a part of the horse team than the human carriage riders.
Shelburne Landau. This carriage had a brief movie career, appearing in both Gone With the Wind (1939) and Jezebel (1938). Before and after its screen roles, however, it was left to deteriorate. It was twice restored — first by Hollywood in the 1930s, then by the Dennises in 1993. The Landau was typically a carriage for the wealthy and owners often had a family crest visible on the door. It featured two heavy tops that could be locked together and folded down in good weather. See larger photo.
Top buggy. Smaller and lighter than the Landaus, a buggy was designed for one or two passengers and was pulled by a single horse. That made it versatile and quite fast. It could travel at 8 to 10 mph when the horse moved at a trot. (Fast is a relative term, mind you.) See larger photo.
Studebaker Stanhope. The museum’s 1895 Stanhope was a popular model from an Indiana company that came into being manufacturing wagons for farmers, miners, and the military. Its assembly process was efficient for its day, enabling Studebaker to mass produce wagons and carriages at prices below their competitors. The company continued production well into the automobile era. By the way, the Stanhope was an “izzer” at the time. Don’t know what that term meant? You’ll find out when you visit the museum.
Hansom Cab. Joseph Hansom patented the Hansom Safety Cab in Britain as early as 1834. Paying passengers sat under the cover between the two large wheels. The high dashboard in front allowed the horse to be harnessed close to the cab. Combined with a lower center of gravity, these features gave the Hansom Cab a reputation for speed and safety. The driver was perched very high behind the cab. From there he could see over the roof and open and close the doors. His control of the door latches, in fact, enabled him to keep his passengers locked tight until he collected his fare through a small trap door.
Spider Phaeton. Similar to the Top Buggy in looks and speed, this American carriage became known as a gentleman’s coach. It’s owner, usually young and male, drove it himself and might race other young men in friendly competitions. It was popular throughout the later half of the 19th century. The museum’s specimen sports a stylized heart-shaped lantern — ideal for the gentleman owner to use when courting. An outside rear seat enabled a footman or chaperone to go along for the ride but offered no view inside the main compartment.
C-Spring Victoria. While the young men sped through town in their Spider Phaetons, wealthy women showed off their fine clothes in this slower-moving carriage. Its open sides made dresses visible, and the continuous mud guard/step protected them from any wheel splatters. The shock absorbers and broad frame gave this vehicle a gentle ride, too. This particular carriage once appeared in The Little Princess, a 1939 Shirley Temple film. The museum left a child’s umbrella on the seat as a reminder. See larger photo.
Fringe Top Surrey. The surrey was a style that developed in the United States and was popular among people of modest incomes. We showed you this photo at the top of the page, but decided to show it again here within the list. Are you still humming the tune? See larger photo.
Kimball Town Coach. The newest acquisition to the museum was donated this summer by the Museum of History and Industry (MOHAI) in Seattle. It was built in Chicago in 1890, and was originally owned by Frederick Weyehaeuser’s brother-in-law F C A Denkmann. The two men partnered in the lumber industry along the Mississippi, and both eventually moved west. The carriage moved west with Denkmann’s grandson who did a partial restoration and kept it in a Bainbridge Island barn until donating it to MOHAI in 1963. It never made it into public display there, but finally had its public debut in Raymond 50 years later, after NWCM’s curator finished the restoration.
Summer Coupe Brougham. Smaller than a coach, this Brougham was a compact carriage set on a low frame. The driver rode outside in front, while his passengers had a single forward-facing bench in an enclosed, windowed cabin. The museum’s restorers had planned to paint this particular model but admired the natural wood color so much they merely stained it to bring out the rich brown. One feature we liked involved its steps. Step covers attached to the door collected the mud and dirt of street traffic while in motion. Open the door and the cover slides away to reveal a clean step. See larger photo.
Wagonette. This carriage was popular in England around 1850. Prince Albert introduced the style, but it became a vehicle for families who were not royal. It was perfect for country outings with family and friends.
Three-Spring Democrat. An ordinary people’s wagon was box-shaped and open — just as good carrying merchandise as people. As such it was popular as a work vehicle and a way to tote a large group of people for an outing. The museum’s Democrat is a reproduction and is the only one in the collection open to the public for sitting. Children can even dress the part. A rack of 19th century kids’ clothes can be seen on the wall behind the carriage. Let them play dress up, climb aboard, and snap some pictures.
Coachman’s Sleigh. No wheels, but it’s still a carriage. The proud owners of a sleigh like this would take it for a ride on winter days (the skids need snow!) when the weather was sunny and mild (since there’s no cover). It was definitely an attention-getter around town.

And now we come to the end of our list with a vehicle many people took during their last carriage ride: a morticians’ hearse. This one is large, has carved panels, an ice-box “basement”, and Hollywood credentials. It appeared in Gentleman Jim, a 1942 movie starring Erroll Flynn. See larger photo.

SOURCES: Notes taken at the museum, with some basic fact-checking, manufacturer’s information, and additional context researched using various websites. Laurie Bowman, the museum’s director, kindly allowed us to photograph the carriages for this article.

Kimball Town Coach courtesy of the NWCM
All other photos © Steve Campion


The Barns of Skagit County

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Buildings & Other Structures

Preserving and rehabilitating old buildings is a common, never-ending process in most cities.  Civic boosters often sponsor historic walking tours and throw spotlights on old homes, theaters, and hotels.  The same preservation initiatives apply to rural structures, too, but usually with much less financial support or fanfare.

The Skagit County Historical Museum and the Washington State Department of Archaeology & Historic Preservation recently published an accordion-fold brochure and map of 55 barns in Skagit County with historic or architectural significance.  It inventories all the officially designated Heritage Barns in the area and offers brief glimpses into their histories.  Perhaps more importantly, the publication reminds its readers that not all buildings of value lie in a downtown core.

It’s also an excellent excuse to go on a historic driving tour of the farm fields in the beautiful Skagit Valley. 

WA-List typically creates its own lists, but we thought this previously-made, illustrated, and annotated list was too good to ignore.  With the kind permission of the authors of the Heritage Barns brochure, we share here the images and a few facts from just six of the many barns we found interesting.  We encourage you to visit the Heritage Barns page to see all of them.  Better yet: pickup your copy of the brochure and map at one of several Skagit County locations and go for a drive.  (Note: These barns are all on private property. Respect the owners’ rights and privacy.)


Day Lumber Company Barn, 16832 Otter Pond Drive, Mount Vernon. The Day Lumber Company owned 3000 acres of land here and operated a cattle farm to sustain the its workers at the sawmill.  The company eventually sold off the land and this 1914 English Gambrel barn was transferred through a succession of individual owners.
John Locken Barn, 19510 SR 534, Mount Vernon. The John and Guro Locken arrived in Skagit County from Norway in the late 1800s, and sometime around 1900, built this Gable-style barn for their dairy.  The Locken family — 5th generation — still lives here and the milk house next to the barn is still in operation.
Dunlap Barn, 12620 Ring Lane, La Conner. A Gable barn built about 1880, the Dunlap is one of the oldest barns in Skagit County.  It was already a half century old when it was moved to a neighboring farm to make way for a replacement.  It’s replacement no longer exists, but this one still stands. Ha!  It has stored hay, grain, and equipment during its 130+ years.
Youngquist Barn, 16645 Jungquist Road, Mount Vernon.  This 1906 English Gambrel barn, also shown above, was built by the Youngquist family who harvested fir trees on the surrounding land for the timbers.  Both dairy and beef cattle have called it home.  And with the cupola and weathervane capping the ridgeline, this is a wonderful example of the iconic American barn.
O J Rucker Barn, 9791 Farm to Market Road, Bow. This Dutch-style barn was built about 1905.  It was part of Skagit County’s first dairy farm and retains at least a portion of its original bucket track system.  It’s peak is quite high, but its side walls are only 8 feet tall.  That curiosity, as the Heritage Barns website says, makes it “mostly roof.”
Barn with no known historic name, 21220 Cook Road, Burlington. A Dutch Gambrel barn built circa 1925.  Many barns act as community centers and convenient places to hold dances.  This nearly 90 year old barn has seen a lot of activity but dancing isn’t supposed to be one of them. It has a covenant on file in county forbidding it from becoming a dance hall. 

PHOTOS: Courtesy of the Washington State Heritage Barn Project and reproduced here with permission.

SOURCE: Information culled by the Heritage Barns of Skagit County brochure and website.


A Washington State Events Calendar

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Yada Yada

LINK: Washington State Events Calendar

You might notice a new Washington Events icon and link on WA-List’s home page. It leads you to a large database of celebrations, concerts, exhibits, and fairs taking place all across our lively state. Depending on the filter option you choose, you’ll see (a) everything, (b) just the premier stuff, (c) the events within a favorite category, or (d) what’s happening in any particular county. You can display the events as a list or in a calendar grid, but with the large volume of events, we prefer the list ourselves.  (That shouldn’t be a surprise considering our name.)

Our calendar is by no means complete, nor do we hold any illusions that we (or anyone) could ever possibly harness every event taking place in a state of nearly 7 million people. And we’re not out to replace or even compete with the many fine local or venue calendars. We simply hope to provide a space where some of the state’s rich variety of events can comingle, offer ideas for places to go, and connect organizers with participants or audience members. Whenever we can, we’ll supply the dates, locations, maps, and summaries but will leave the details and most of the images to the websites provided.

Will this be a permanent feature on WA-List?  Probably.  We have already seen how well-received our lists of county fairs and marathons have become.  And we have often touted upcoming events on our Facebook and Twitter feeds.  An events calendar is a logical extension.  For now we’re displaying events through December, 2013.  If our readers find the events calendar useful, we’ll be happy to continue it.

Oh — and if your community has an event you want listed, let us know. We have an email address and some guidelines & limitations posted  at the bottom of the events page. (Sorry, but such rules are just part of life. We’d hate this calendar to devolve into a boring list of store sales and corporate speakers or be overwhelmed by weekly cribbage games.)

We want to focus on community and cultural events or those of popular interest.  Our initial collections of events hits that perfectly.  At least we think so.


Have you seen the Eocene? Dig your own fossils!

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Education & Research

As I write these notes I’m looking at the branch of a healthy ponderosa pine. It’s full of life and it’s probably older than me.  About an hour ago I was holding the remains of a much older tree branch — a cedar that grew in nearly the same place 49 million years ago!  There’s nothing like a geologic timescale to make you feel young by comparison.

My contact with ancient fossils came about at the Stonerose Interpretive Center, an interactive museum and dig site in Republic, Washington.  Director Catherine Brown (right) showed me around the museum’s small but impressive collection of fossils.  All of them had been unearthed at Stonerose’s dig site a short walk away.  Many had been discovered by children enjoying a fossil-digging adventure during class visits.  For a modest admission, visitors can dig their own fossils and take a few home.  In the interest of science, though, an expert gets to check your finds for significant specimens worthy of further study.

The Stonerose dig site dates to the Eocene epoch, 56 to 34 million years ago.  It was a time after dinosaurs, but early in the age of mammals.  Some families of plants and animals might be familiar to us today, but many of the individual species would not.  The area around Republic was a lake at that time.  The remains of many plants, animals, fish, and insects were buried under volcanic ash sediments in the ancient lake bed.  Undisturbed for millennia, these bones, twigs, and debris fossilized in the shale layers being uncovered daily by experts and visitors alike.

I asked Brown to show me her favorites from the collection.  She smiled, as if to ask “how can I pick favorites?”  With so many intriguing and extinct species to choose from, she began pointing at the cases on display — which included the beautiful Florassantia flower fossil that gives the center its logo — and led me to the archive room where countless more fossils lay tagged and stored in drawers.  One wall housed an uncatalogued trove of yet-to-be-scientifically studied insect fossils.

Stonerose (shown here) has thousands of specimens showing life in the Eocene world of long ago. During the course of my visit, Brown pointed to the 21 fossils on our list today.

  • Location: 15-1 North Kean, Republic, WA 99166. It’s on Highway 20, across the street from the park.
  • Hours: Open May through October. Check the website for specifics.
  • Phone: 509-775-2295
  • Website: StoneroseFossil.org



Propalosoma gutierrezae. An extinct wasp found by Karen Gutierrez. It was scientifically described in 1999.  “It’s fantastic,” said Brown. (On public display.)  See larger image.
Palaeopsychops marringerae. An extinct giant lacewing named for Regina Marringer. It was found by a fourth grader and described scientifically in 2005. (On public display)
Palaeopsychops timmi. An extinct giant lacewing named for Thomas Timm  and described in 2005. (On public display)



Eosalmo. Brown said that the Chris Marlinga was full of confidence the morning he unearthed this fish — July 15, 2002. Knowing that Stonerose releases common fossils but retains significant ones for scientific study, he said “I’m going to find something you’re going to keep!”  He was right.  He came back with the oldest, most complete salmon ever found in North America. (On public display.)  See larger image of head.
Unidentified fish. Okay, I’ll admit that this was MY favorite fossil in the Stonerose collection.  It’s not on display yet and it hasn’t even had rigorous scientific study yet.  But the preservation of the fine bone detail is undeniable even to a non-scientist like me.  Brown showed me this specimen near the end of my visit as a wonderful example of how the rock beautifully split the fossil in two mirrored halves.  There’s paleontological beauty in that, too.  It was found by Kathy Armstrong in 2012. (Not on public display.)  See larger image of right half.



Unknown species.  This bird feather in stone was found by Steve Hines. (On public display.)
Unidentified bird found by Becky Stocker, June 3, 1999.  Brown said that this specimen was misidentified at first as some kind of fruit.  It remained in that state for ten years until it was studied under magnification and was found to be the skeleton of a small bird — the first ever found at Stonerose. It may be difficult to make it out in the photo, but the large shape at the top, right of center, is the bird’s cranium.  The vertebrae extends down and to the left from there.  The straight vertical bone left of center is a wing. (On public display.)



Florissantia quilchenensis.  This remarkable lobed flower fossil was found by Wes Wehr and Lisa Barksdale and studied extensively.  Florissantia is an extinct flower of the cocoa tree family that flourished in parts of western North America during the Eocene, but the very best specimens have come from Stonerose.  This individual fossil is perhaps the best preserved of all.  It has become the logo for the Stonrose Center and was the lead photograph in a July 2002 National Geographic article on the evolution of flowering plants.  The veins within the petals are visible on close inspection. (On public display.)  See larger image.


Florissantia. This shows another Florisaantia flower (like the one above) folded on its side.  The stem is still attached.  Gavin Hooper found this fossil in July, 2006. (Not currently on public display.)



Cupressaceae cedar branch. This large fossil, chipped from the Stonerose quarry in parts and later fused together, reveals exquisite detail on two levels. Its fine needles on the micro scale is as impressive as the branching form it preserves on the macro scale. It was found by Vitya Collier and Richard Montgomery in May, 2005. (Not currently on public display.)
Metasequoia occidentalis. The branch of an extinct dawn redwood tree was found by Terry Madsen July 8, 1999. (On public display.)
Malus. The modern cultivated apple derives from tree varieties in Turkey and Kazakhstan, but Washington state is the world’s leading apple grower in the 21st century. How fitting, then, that this specimen found at Stonerose by Wes Wehr, has been identified as the world’s oldest leaf from an apple tree. (On public display.)
Sassafras hesperia. Leaf from an extinct sassafras found by William Bagley, June 19, 1998. (On public display.)
Crataegus. Hawthorne leaf. Suzy Renn of Bellevue found this leaf Aug 16, 2001. (Not currently on public display.)
Gingko biloba. Found by Mariann Faulkner, Aug 29, 2002. (On public display.)
Macginitiea gracilis. This leaf from an extinct sycamore was found by Barry Nevin July 9, 2000. (On public display.)
Macginitiea gracilis. Another well-preserved sycamore leaf was found by John Hemmerling of British Columbia, July 1, 2005. (Not currently on public display.)  See detail.
Macginicarpa. Fruit of a sycamore. This was found Apr 28, 2007, by Lance Fritts of Riverside, WA. (Not currently on public display.)  See detail.
Pinaceae catkins. These catkins cones were found by Karl Volkman, Sep 25, 2003, Cones. (Not currently on public display.)  See larger image.
A cone from an unidentified conifer cone. Perhaps the most striking characteristic of this fossil is the texture.  It’s bumpy relief shows the unmistakable rows of a pine cone buried in rock.  It feels like a pine cone.  Theresa Greene found this fossil May 11, 1996. (Not currently on public display.)  See detail.
Acer washingtonense. Wingseed. Even though it looks like a seed dropped today in your back yard or neighborhood park, this particular specimen hit the ground tens of millions of years ago. It was found by Zena Johnson in 2008. (Not currently on public display.)


PHOTOS © by Steve Campion.

SOURCE:  We thank Catherine Brown for personally showing us these fossils and permitting them to be photographed.  It was a treat to see such wonderful treasures up close.  Brown also proofed the identifying information pre-publication.  Several of the fossils shown here were studied, identified, and described at the Burke Museum in Seattle and the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.


Boys in the Hall

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Sports & Recreation

One Hall of Fame entered, one to go.

That’s the general consensus after former baseball star Ken Griffey Jr was inducted into the Seattle Mariners Hall of Fame this evening.  Griffey was not merely one of Seattle‘s best athletes.  He was one the best to ever play the game of baseball.  Period.  The Hall of Fame in Cooperstown will likely call him in a few more years.

The Seattle Mariners Hall of Fame was created in 1997 with the induction of Alvin Davis, Seattle’s first national star.  Davis won American League Rookie of the Year honors in 1984, and took home the team MVP in 1984, 1988, and 1989.  Over the next several years, Davis welcomed new teammates destined to be stars and Hall of Famers themselves: Edgar Martinez in 1987, Jay Buhner in 1988, and both Ken Griffey Jr and Randy Johnson in 1989.  With Dave Niehaus in the broadcast booth, six of the seven current member of the Mariners Hall of Fame were together for a time, 1989-1991.  A slightly different combination of six future Hall of Famers were in Seattle 1994-1998, after Davis retired and Wilson joined the team.  That era included the Mariners’ “Refuse to Lose” season (1995) and the first trips into the postseason.  Three current Hall of Famers — we expect more to be added — were on the record-breaking 116-win season (2001): Buhner, Martinez, and Wilson.

There are many remarkable feats, awards, statistics, and memories involving these seven men, but today we simply list their names and careers.  A Hall of Fame berth is award enough.


Hall of Famer Primary Position Mariners’ career Inducted
Alvin Davis First Baseman 1984-1991 1997 Jun 14
Dave Niehaus Broadcaster 1977-2010 2000 May 7*
Jay Buhner Outfielder 1988-2001 2004 Aug 24
Edgar Martinez Designated Hitter 1987-2004 2007 Jun 2
Randy Johnson Pitcher 1989-1998 2012 Jul 28
Dan Wilson Catcher 1994-2005 2012 Jul 28
Ken Griffey Jr Outfielder 1989-1999,
2013 Aug 10

*In 2008, Dave Neihaus was awarded the Ford C. Frick Award by the National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, NY.


A State’s Library Card Gallery

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Education & Research

Your library card is probably on this map of Washington (or in the gallery below).  The map is a mosaic of almost 100 different cards from public libraries around the state.

Amazing things, library cards.  The cards themselves are often merely a piece of barcoded plastic, but the people and services standing behind them multiply the value exponentially. Cards offer their owners access to books, media, databases, and resources which in turn convert to imagination, education, careers, and assistance in countless forms.

We contacted every public library in Washington and asked them to contribute a card (real or digital image) to our project.  The first card arrived within ten minutes.  Most other libraries responded over the following weeks as we checked back a couple more times. Some librarians loved the idea. They balked at sending us just one design; they boasted several cards and wanted to show off each and every one.  We’re very grateful for their enthusiasm.

In the end we collected 99 cards from 49 different library systems, mixed them into the mosaic shown above and added them to the illustrated list below. (FYI: There are 58 library systems in Washington that use cards and two that don’t.  Only nine libraries did not submit cards to the project.)  UPDATE 8/5/13: We have received an additional card from a 50th library and will include it in the gallery at a later date.

  • The mosaic (above): It’s hard to see details clearly, but we assure you that all the library cards we received are on the map at least once.  Many of them, particularly those featuring green, appear multiple times.
  • The list (below): We conceived this project as a colorful gallery showing off the variety of library cards and the vitality of libraries in Washington.  Some images tout a child’s first card, appeal to teen audiences, or show the joy of reading.  Several show a library building, local landmarks, scenery, or wildlife.  Many other cards are infused with pride for the various communities each library serves.  There are line drawings, photos, graphics, and designs contest winners. There are also cards without marketing glitz of any kind; they proudly do their job with the utilitarian efficiency of a name on paper.

Can you find your card?  If  you don’t have a card from your local library, for crying out loud go get one now!  We’ll wait for you.


All 96 cards are arranged here in alphabetical order by library name except for the four vertical cards that we tucked in at the end to make the images line up well.

Anacortes Public Library Asotin County Library
Anacortes Public Library <<->> Asotin County Library
Asotin County Library Asotin County Library
Asotin County Library
Asotin County Library Asotin County Library
Asotin County Library
Asotin County Library Bellingham Public Library
Asotin County Library <<->> Bellingham Public Library
Cathlamet Public Library Columbia County Rural Library District
Cathlamet Public Library <<->> Columbia County Rural Library District
Denny Ashby Library (Pomeroy) Ellensburg Public Library
Denny Ashby Library (Pomeroy) <<->> Ellensburg Public Library
Everett Public Library Everett Public Library
Everett Public Library
Everett Public Library Everett Public Library
Everett Public Library
Everett Public Library Everett Public Library
Everett Public Library
Fort Vancouver Regional Library Grandview Library
Fort Vancouver Regional Library District <<->> Grandview Library
Harrington Library Hesseltine Library (Wilbur)
Harrington Library <<->> Hesseltine Library (Wilbur)
Jefferson County Library Kalama Public Library
Jefferson County Library <<->> Kalama Public Library
King County Library King County Library
King County Library System
King County Library King County Library
King County Library System
King County Library King County Library
King County Library System
King County Library King County Library
King County Library System
King County Library King County Library
King County Library System
Kitsap Regional Library LaConner Regional Library
Kitsap Regional Library<<->> LaConner Regional Library
Liberty Lake Municipal Library Longview Public Library
Liberty Lake Municipal Library <<->> Longview Public Library
Lopez Island Library Mid-Columbia Libraries
Lopez Island Library <<->> Mid-Columbia Libraries
Mid-Columbia Libraries Mid-Columbia Libraries
Mid-Columbia Libraries
Mid-Columbia Libraries Mount Vernon City Library
Mid-Columbia Libraries <<->> Mount Vernon City Library
Neill Public Library (Pullman) North Central Regional Library
Neill Public Library (Pullman) <<->> North Central Regional Library
North Central Regional Library North Olympic Library System
North Central Regional Library <<->> North Olympic Library System
North Olympic Library System North Olympic Library System
North Olympic Library System
North Olympic Library System North Olympic Library System
North Olympic Library System
Orcas Island Public Library Ocean Shores Library
Orcas Island Public Library <<->> Ocean Shores Library
Ocean Shores Library Ocean Shores Library
Ocean Shores Library
Ocean Shores Library Pierce County Library System
Ocean Shores Library <<->> Pierce County Library System
Pierce County Library System Pierce County Library System
Pierce County Library System
Pierce County Library System Pend Oreille County Library District
Pierce County Library System <<->> Pend Oreille County Library District
Port Townsend Public Library Puyallup Public Library
Port Townsend Public Library <<->> Puyallup Public Library
Richland Public Library Richland Public Library
Richland Public Library
Richland Public Library Ritzville Library District
Richland Public Library <<->> Ritzville Library District
Roslyn Public Library San Juan Island Library District
Roslyn Public Library <<->> San Juan Island Library
San Juan Island Library District Seattle Public Library
San Juan Island Library <<->> Seattle Public Library
Seattle Public Library Seattle Public Library
Seattle Public Library
Seattle Public Library Seattle Public Library
Seattle Public Library
Seattle Public Library Sno-Isle Public Library
Seattle Public Library <<->> Sno-Isle Public Library
Sno-Isle Public Library Spokane County Library District
Sno-Isle Public Library <<->> Spokane County Library District
Spokane Public Library Spokane Public Library
Spokane Public Library
Sprague Public Library Libraries of Stevens County
Sprague Public Library <<->> Libraries of Stevens County
Timberland Regional Library Timberland Regional Library
Timberland Regional Library
Walla Walla Public Library Washington State Library
Walla Walla Public Library <<->> Washington State Library
Weller Public Library (Waitsburg) Whatcom County Library System
Weller Public Library (Waitsburg) <<->> Whatcom County Library System
Whatcom County Library System Whatcom County Library System
Whatcom County Library System
Whatcom County Library System Whitman County Library
Whatcom County Library System <<->> Whitman County Library
Yakima Valley Libraries
Yakima Valley Libraries
Burlington Public Library Pierce County Library System
Burlington Public Library <<->> Pierce County Library System
Walla Walla Public Library Whatcom County Library System
Walla Walla Public Library <<->> Whatcom County Library System

MOSAIC by Steve Campion

SOURCE:  All the card images in this gallery appear courtesy of the libraries from which they came.  We collected them in June and July, 2013 — by mail, e-mail, and in person. Some libraries provided us with more than one.  Yay, librarians!  Thank you.

NOTE: We at WA-List enjoy creating and sharing lists about Washington. We also work in a public library system and have active cards from five other libraries to boot.  As colorful as those cards are, we find their usefulness even more valuable.  It’s no wonder that we eventually hit on the idea of gathering a list — a gallery — of library cards from all across the state.  We were surprised no one had done it before.


3 Days and 2 Nights in Wenatchee

Published by Steve Campion. Category: Counties & Towns

Looking for an enjoyable weekend getaway without leaving the state?  Consider Wenatchee.  The city nearest the geographic center of Washington is not only the apple capital of the United States, but it makes a relaxing summer getaway without the fuss of airports or rental cars.

What might you do on a Wenatchee vacation?  We asked the people at the Wenatchee Valley Chamber of Commerce & Visitor Center to imagine Three Days and Two Nights for a hypothetical adult couple in their town.  They took up our challenge and designed the weekend itinerary below.  The result has enough coffee and alcohol to happily lubricate the visit and still leave time to shop and take in the views of the Columbia River and surrounding mountains.  There are plenty of other places to go and things to do in Wenatchee, of course, but we intentionally asked the visitor center to kept it simple.  We hoped to show some of the city without running anyone ragged on a see-everything-at-once-visit.

We call this series Three Days and Two Nights.  We want to share sample itineraries for weekend vacations in various Washington locations.  Our intent isn’t to burden readers with dozens of places to go in a crazy 60-hour frenzy.  On the contrary.  We want to keep things simple by suggesting a realistic experience — one that you might quickly visualize in your mind before grabbing a calendar to start making plans. Travel locally and explore the Northwest. You can squeeze a lot of memories into a 3 day weekend.


Friday afternoon

Arrive in Wenatchee.  Check into the COAST Hotel (201 N Wenatchee Ave, 509-662-1234) located downtown Wenatchee.  Walk the Apple Capital Loop Trail (photo above) to the Pybus Public Market (photo right, 3 N. Worthen, 509-888-3900).  Browse the shops, do some wine tasting and then take the short walk up to Wenatchee Avenue to do some more wine tasting at the Chamber Room Tasting Bar (corner of Palouse & S. Wenatchee Ave) and at Stemilt Creek Winery (110 N. Wenatchee Ave., 509-665-3485).

Friday evening

Stop at McGlinns Public House (photo at left, 111 Orondo Ave, 509-663-9073) for dinner.  McGlinns is an old pub with a lot of character, a great menu and excellent food.  Take a nice walk back to the hotel.

Saturday morning

Breakfast and coffee at Caffe` Mela (photo below, 17 N Wenatchee Ave, 509-888-0374) located downtown Wenatchee, within walking distance of the hotel.

Saturday afternoon

Go down to Walla Walla Point Park (1351 Walla Walla Ave), a short drive or walk from the hotel, for some paddle boarding and kayaking.  There is a little inlet area from which you can start out and then venture out onto the Columbia  River and up to the confluence where the Wenatchee River runs into the Columbia.  On your way up the Columbia you will see the Horan Nature Area.  It is a beautiful area to do a little exploring in if you’d like.

Saturday evening

Go out to the Chateau Faire le Pont (1 Vinyard Way, 509-667-9463) for an early reserve wine tasting.  Enjoy dinner at this elegant winery with the music of Charlie Solburg, a guitar vocalist.

Sunday morning

Start your day at Taste Buds (212 5th St #A,  509-888-2783).  Enjoy their gourmet espresso and fresh baked scones.

Sunday afternoon

Take the short drive west on Hwy 2/97 to Cashmere and visit the Cashmere Cider Mill (5420 Woodring Canyon Rd‎, Cashmere, 509-782-3564).  Enjoy the orchards, tasty cider and home made treats.

If you can slip one more enjoyable outing into your weekend…

Walk the trails of Ohme Gardens (3327 Ohme Road, 509-662-5785). Designed as a private garden in the 1930s, the beautiful gardens and shady landscaping makes a cool oasis on a hot day.

SOURCE: Most of the stops on this itinerary were provided to us by the Wenatchee Valley Chamber of Commerce & Visitor Center.  We added Ohme Gardens as a bonus because we truly love the place.  This list, by the way, is not an advertisement. No one associated with WA-List was compensated for any inclusions on this list.

PHOTOS © Steve Campion.